The physical media needed to connect nodes in a network. Layer 1, the OSI Model’s transmitting media.
This layer can also be referred to as bits. They can take the forms of radio frequencies and light waves.
Copper cable Media
Unshielded twisted pair (UTP), shielded-twisted-pairs (STP), as well as coaxial cables are all types of cable. Copper-based cables are cheaper and more flexible than fiber-optic cables. This topic will be addressed when we get into more details.
Copper media is also known as cable and is used for supporting data communications.
- Unshielded Twisted Paar
- Shielded Twisted Par (STP).
These cables connect computers with other devices and the internet, such as switches, routers, and wireless access points.
Unshielded Twisted Pair cable
Twisted pair (UTP cabling) is the most widely used networking media.
The wires of a computer are connected and wrapped in flexible plastic wrap to protect them.
UTP cabling terminated by RJ45 connectors . These connectors are used for connecting intermediate network devices and hosts via UTP cables
Shielded Twisted Pair Cable(STP).
Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP), offers better noise protection than UTP cables. STP uses an RJ45 connector, just like UTP.
Shielded Twisted Couple Wiring protects the transmission from electromagnetic interference.
Shielded twisted pairs (STP), cables combine shielding from EMI/RFI wire twisting to combat crosstalk.
You can have up to two conductors on one side of a coaxial cable. There can be two conductors along one axis.
- Copper conductor for electronic signals.
- Flexible Poly insulation used to wrap copper.
- The insulation material can be enclosed in either a copper foil or woven copper sheet.
- Cable jackets should be applied throughout the length of the cable to protect it.
There are many connectors for coax cables.
UTP cables are rapidly replacing coaxial in modern Ethernet installations.
- There are many kinds of coax cable you can use.
Fiber optics Cable Media
Fiber Optic Cables are another form of physical media.
fiber could be used to communicate.
Fiber-Optic Cabling Properties
Fiber optic cable transmits information faster than any other media and can travel a greater distance.
Fiber optic cable can be described as a flexible, transparent strand of glass.
A blank roll made from paper towel can be used to make a fiber optic Cable. The interior of the roll should be coated with mirrors. The cable is much smaller than other optical cables.
Fiber Optic cabling comes in four options:
- Enterprise Networks serve backbone cabling, interconnecting infrastructure, and other purposes.
- Fiber to-the – Offers broadband service 24/7 to homes and small businesses.
- Service providers utilize Long Haul Networks for connecting cities or countries.
- Submarine Networks are reliable solutions for high-speed and high-capacity environments.
Structure and Fiber Optic Cable
There are two types available in optical fiber: core and cladding. Figure 3-8.
The optical core or light transmitting core of an optical fiber is called the core.
It is made with only the core chemicals. This mirror reflects light back into fiber to protect it from fading.
Protects cladding core from damage.
This buffer helps to prevent fiber cables from stretching when pulled.
PVC coats can be used to protect fibers from heat, moisture, and abrasion.
Fiber Media: Types and Benefits
light pulses replace transmitted data as bits on media made by
- Light emitting diodes (LEDs)
Photodiodes electronic semiconductor devices sense light pulses in order to convert them into voltages. It is important to not look at the ends of active optical fibers.
- Single-mode fiber (SMF) Only one ray leaves the cable’s core. You can use this cable for long distance applications, which span hundreds of kilometers. Here are some characteristics of single-mode cables.
- A small core
- Less dispersion
- Lightning could be done with laser
- This product excels in long distance applications
- Marks distances greater than several thousand meters.
- Multimode Fiber (MMF), a cable that has an exceptionally large core is multimode fiber.
- A stronger core than single mode cable
- Use LEDs in light source
- Allows for more signal
- This is an excellent option for long-distance travel.
- Commonly used for distances exceeding several hundred meters within campus networks.
Wireless media include radio frequencies and satellites. Cables are cheaper than wireless media and can be used in rural areas.
Wireless media is the best means of moving, and many products are wireless-enabled.
- The coverage range Wireless communication technologies can operate in open environments. However, some construction materials like buildings or structures may limit coverage.
- Security. Security.
- WLAN sharing medium. WLAN operates in half of a double-duplex. WLAN sharing medium. WLAN can also work in half of double-duplex.
Types of wireless media
IEEE standards for wireless data communications are used by the telecommunications sector.
- Transmission Frequency
- The transmission speed
- Radio frequency encoding of data
- Prerequisites of decoding and sign reception
- Antenna design & construction
Wi Fi Alliance trademark is Wi Fi Products certified under These are:
IEEE 802.11 Standard for WIFI
WLAN technology can also be known as Wi-Fi.
Bluetooth standard IEEE 802.15
Bluetooth also known as Wireless Personal Area Network. It pairs two devices to enable communication over distances greater than 100m.
WI-MAX Standard IEEE 802.16
WiMAX is the worldwide interoperability system for microwave broadband access. This topology, also called WiMAX (or WiMAX), allows wireless broadband access to be accessed from point-to multipoint.
Wireless LAN (WLAN).
These devices are needed for wireless data transmission.
- Access Station (WiFi),: An access point (AP) is any device that transmits or retrieves information via wireless networks.
- Wireless NIC Adapters – Any network host can be equipped with wireless communication capabilities.
Many WLAN Ethernet standards have been developed over time.
Wireless data communications technology is a great option, with many benefits including the ease of use and cost-savings in wiring.